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1.2379 Tool Steel

1.2379 AISI D2 is a high carbon, high chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, air hardening tool steel which offershigh surface hardness, good wear resistance, through hardening properties, dimensional stability and high resistance to tempering effect. 1.2379 X155CrVMo12-1 tool steel is also suitable for vacuum hardening.

1.2379 AISI D2 is one of the cold work, high carbon, high chromium type tool steels. D2 is a deep hardening, highly wear resistant alloy. It hardens upon air cooling so as to have minimum distortion after heat treatment.

1.2379 AISI D2 tool steel used for long run tooling applications where wear resistance is important, such as blanking or forming dies and thread rolling dies, cutting tools, stamping, woodworking, moulding tools for plastics. Toughness better than in D3. Possibility of nitriding.

Forging: Heat slowly and uniformly to 700°C then more rapidly to 900/1040°C.  After forging 1.2379 cool slowly. Annealing: Anneal at 850°C and slow furnace cool. Hardness after annealing will be approx. 225 brinell.

Hardening: Pre heat the 1.2379 component slowly to 750/780°C and thoroughly soak. Continue heating to the final hardening temperature of 1000/1030°C and allow the component to be heated through. Quenching in oil or cool in air.

Tempering: Heat uniformly and thoroughly at the selected tempering temperature and hold for at least one hour per inch of total thickness. Double tempering of 1.2379  is recommended to be carried out with intermediate cooling to room temperature.

Stress Relieving: f machining oWWDperations have been heavy or if the 1.2379 tool has an unbalanced section, remove stresses before hardening by heating up to 700°C, equalise, then cool slowly.

Hard Chromium Plating: After hard chromium plating tempering of 1.2379 tool steel is recommended at 180°C for 4 hours to avoid hydrogen embrittlement.  Tempering is to be performed immediately after chromium plating.

Welding: Due to the high risk of crack formation welding of 1.2379 tool steel should be avoided, if possible. When, howe ver welding is essential, the following serves as a guide:

A.   Welding of soft annealed 1.2379 tool steel.
·       Preheat to 300 - 500°C
·       Weld at 300-500°C
·       Immediately stress relieve
Electrode: Cr-Mo alloy electrode for welding structural steel.

B.    Welding in connection with hardening of soft annealed 1.2379 tool steel.
·       Heat to austenitizing temperature.
·       Cool to approx. 500°C
·       Weld at approx. 500°C
·       Cool to approx. 100°C in the same way as at normal hardening, then temper to desired hardness. Double tempering will
     reduce the risk of crack formation.
Electrode: Hard facing electrode.

C.    Repair welding of 1.2379 tool steel in hardened and tempered condition.
·       Preheat to the tempering temperature (min. 200°C) previously used.
·       Weld at tempering temperature
·     Heat immediately to tempering temperature, but max. 300°C. Soaking time 2 hours.
Electrode: Hard facing electrode.

Typical Analysis  1.2379  X155CrVMo12-1
 C. Si. Cr.  Mn.  Mo.  V. 
 1.50% 0.30%  12.00%  0.40%  0.80%  0.90% 

Tempering °C 150 200 250 300 350 400
HRc 62/61 61/60 60/59 57/56 56/55 56/55

Physical Properties:       1.2379    X155CrVMo12-1 Temperature:    
  20°C 200°C 400°C
Density (kg/dm³) 7.70 7.65 7.60
Coefficient of thermal expansion (per °C from 0°C) - 22.0 x 10-6 10.8 x 10-6
Thermal conductivity (cal/cm.s °C) 40.9 x 10-3 50.4 x 10-3 55.2 x 10-3
Specific heat (cal/g °C)  0.110    
Modulus of elasticity:      
Kp/mm²   19 700   19 200   17 650
N/mm² 193 000 188 000 173 000

Physical properties (avarage values) at ambient temperature
Modulus of elasticity [103 x N/mm2]: 210 
Density [g/cm3]: 7.70
Thermal conductivity [W/m.K]: 20.0 
Electric resistivity [Ohm mm2/m]: 0.65
Specific heat capacity[J/g.K]: 0.46

Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion 10-6 oC-1

20-100oC 20-200oC 20-300oC 20-400oC 20-500oC 20-600oC 20-700oC 20-800oC
9.8 11.7 12.1 12.8 12.9 13.0 13.2 13.5

Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) Diagram

Time-Temperature Transformation (TTT) Diagram

Tempering Temperature (oC) vs. Hardness (HRC)

100oC 200oC 300oC 400oC 500oC 525oC 550oC 600oC 700oC
63 61 58 58 59 58 56 51 35

Tempering Diagram

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