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Melting Temperature Ranges for Stainless Steel

Stainless steel are alloys and therefore do not melt and freeze at a fixed temperature, as do metallic elements, but over a temperature range, depending on the chemical composition of the steel. Alloy additions also suppress (lower) the melting range. Pure iron (Fe) has a fixed melting point of 1535°C, chromium (Cr) 1890C and nickel (Ni) 1453°C compared to a range of 1400-1450°C for type 304 stainless steel.

Significance of melting ranges

Melting ranges are very important to the steelmakers as the success of the melting and casting operations depends on the correct selection of temperature. Once solidified and primary processed (rolling or forging) by the steelmaker, the melting temperature has little significance to designers, engineers and steel users.

Although melting temperature does influence elevated temperature properties, such as creep strength, this is only of interest to researchers. Data on creep strength at various service temperatures is available.

Melting range does not directly affect the oxidation resistance of individual heat resisting stainless steel. This is linked more closely to chromium content and is illustrated by comparing 304 and 310 types.Maximum service temperatures in air for stainless steel

Both have the same melting range of 1400-1450°C, but the maximum service temperatures in air atmospheres are 870°C for 304 type and 1050°C for 310 type.

Melting Ranges

The following table, taken from the
ASM Specialty Handbook 'Stainless Steels'
shows the melting ranges in degrees C (°C) of some of the common stainless steel grades, grouped in their melting ranges for comparison.

Melting Range (°C) Steel Types
1325-1400 254SMO
1370-1480 440A, 440C
1375-1400 316, 316L,
1385-1445 2205
1400-1420 301,
1400-1425 330, 321, 347,
1400-1440 17-4PH
1400-1450 201, 304, 304L, 305, 309, 310,
1425-1510 430, 446
1450-1510 420
1480-1530 409, 410, 416,

Related References:
Melting Temperature of Metals
Temperature Effects on Metal Strength
High Temperature Stainless Steel Tubes
High Temperature Stainless Steel Tubes
High Temperature Property Stainless Steel
Heat resistant Stainless Steel Tubes
High Temperature Change Stainless Steel Mechnical Properties
Select Stainless Steel by high temperature condition refer table
Properties at Cryogenic Temperatures of Stainless Steel Tubes

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