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Steel Overview

Steel is a term used for iron to which between 0.02 to 1.7% carbon has been added. The old definition of steel used to be something like "it rusts and it sinks in water." This material comprises the most diverse group of alloys and applications in the metals world. If there is something that needs to be made, there probably is a steel alloy that it can be made of. Steel does, of course, have poor corrosion resistance, but its relatively low cost and ease of painting make it a common choice.

The numbering system for steel is actually one of the few things in the metals industry that seems to make sense. You can determine the alloying ingredients by the first two digits of the alloy number, and the carbon content by the last two digits. For instance, 1018 mild steel is simply iron with a carbon content of 0.18%. Generally speaking, as the carbon content goes up, strength increases, but machinability and weldability decrease.

Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten. Carbon and other elements act as a hardening agent, preventing dislocations in the iron atom crystal lattice from sliding past one another. Varying the amount of alloying elements and the form of their presence in the steel controls qualities such as the hardness, ductility, and tensile strength of the resulting steel. Steel with increased carbon content can be made harder and stronger than iron, but such steel is also less ductile than iron.

General: Carbon steel are regarded as steels containing not more than 0,5% manganese and 0,5% silicon, all other steel being regarded as alloy steel, Stainless Steel Tube.


Chemical Analysis Composition of Alloy Steel Table | Chemical Analysis of Carbon Steel Table

Mechanical Properties | Physical Properties | Carbon Steel Pipe Standards | ASTM A53 B Working Pressure | ASTM A106 B Pressure Temperature Rating | Carbon Steel | Steel Alloy Designations | Chemical Composition Analysis of Carbon Steel Table | UNS Number G1 | UNS Number G2 | UNS Number G3 | UNS Number G4 | UNS Number G5 | UNS Number G6 | UNS Number G7



Type of Steel Description


Carbon C, Mn, P, S
G11xx0 11xx Carbon C, Mn, P, S
G13xx0 13xx Manganese 1.75% Mn
G23xx0 23xx Nickel Steels 3.50% Ni
G25xx0 25xx Nickel Steel 5.00% Ni
G31xx0 31xx Nickel-Chromium 1.25% Ni & .65% Cr
G33xx0 33xx Nickel-Chromium 3.00%Ni & 1.57% Cr.
303xx Nickel-Chromium Corrosion & Heat Resistant
G40xx0 40x Molybdenum .25% Mo
G41xx00 41xx Molybdenum .95% Cr
G43xx0 43xx Nickel-Chromium-Moldb 1.82% Ni,.50% Cr, .25% Mo
G47xx0 47xx Nickel-Chromium-Moldb 1.05%Ni, .45%Cr, .20%Mo
G86xx0 86xx Nickel-Chromium-Moldb .55%Ni, .50%Cr, .20%Mo
G87xx0 87xx Nickel-Chromium-Moldb .55%Ni, .50%Cr, .25%Mo
G93xx0 93xx Nickel-Chromium-Moldb 3.25%Ni, 1.20%Cr, .12%Mo
G98xx0 98xx Nickel-Chromium-Moldb 1.00%Ni, .80%Cr, .25%Mo
G46xx0 46xx Nickel-Moldb 1.57%Ni, .20%Mo
G48xx0 48xx Nickel-Moldb 350%Bi, 0.25% Mo
G50xx 50xx Chromium .27-.50%Cr, Low Chromium
G51xx0 51xx Chromium .80-1.05%Cr, Low Chromium
  51xxx Chromium 1.02&Cr, Medium Chromium
G52xx0 52xxx Chromium 1.45% Cr, High Chromium
  514xx Chromium Corrosion & Heat Chromium
G61xx0 61xx Chromium-Vanadium .95% Cr, 0.15
G92xx0 92xx Silicon-Manganese .65-.87% Mn, .85-2.00% Si

General Purpose

1010 -  General purpose steel. Good weldability and forming and extruding chrematistics. Often used for general structural and automotive bodies.

1015 - General purpose low carbon plate with predictable qualities.  Has excellent welding and bending properties.  Structural applications.

1020 - Good general purpose low carbon plate.  Good machinability and formability. Used in automotive camshafts and similar applications.

1025 - Plate. Higher carbon plate for greater strength. Has optimal combination of strength, weldability and good form retaining after machining.

1045 Medium carbon steel. often used for bolts, studs and shaft parts. High strength and hardness.

Hot Rolled Carbon Steel

1018, 1020 (HR,CF) - Low carbon steel. Has good hardening properties, fair machinability.  Readily brazed and welded.

1117 (HR,CF) - Low carbon, high manganese steel.  Good machinability, case hardening is deep and uniform.  Good for bending, broaching and most deforming without cracking.

Medium Carbon - Direct Hardening

1035 (HR) - Intermediate carbon higher in strength and hardness than low carbon steel. Used for studs, bolts etc.

1040, 1045 (HR,CF) - Used when greater strength and hardness is desired in the as rolled condition. Good for hammer forge processes. Uses include gears, shafts, axles, bolts sand studs.

1050 (CF) - Strain hardened, stress relieved material typically 100 KSI yield strength.

1141 (HR,CF) - Improved machinability and better heat treatment response (surface hardness is deeper and more uniform) than plain carbon steels. Uses include gears, shafts, axles, bolts, studs, pins, etc.

Screw Stock

1215 (HR,CF) - Fast cutting steel is considered the standard screw stock. Cutting speeds and machining characteristics are excellent.

Medium Carbon Alloy Bars - Annealed

4140/4150 - Widely used general purpose alloys, low in cost. A broad range of strength and toughness is attainable through variations in heat treatment. Used for forgings, tubing and fittings

4340 - Highly alloyed steel, nominally 1.8% Ni, .80% chromium and .25% molybdenum. High strength characteristics. Used for heavily stressed parts operating in fatigue and other duty conditions.

1008 | 1010 | 1015 | 1018 | 1020 | 1025 | 1035 | 1040 | 1045 | 1050 | 1117 | 1141 | 1144 | 12L14 | 1215 | 4140 | 4150 | 4340 | 8620 | A36 | A653 | A513 | Mechanical Properties | Physical Properties | Carbon Steel Pipe Standards | ASTM A53 B Working Pressure | ASTM A106 B Pressure Temperature Rating | Carbon Steel | Steel Alloy Designations

Hot Rolling - Hot Rolling Process | Hot Rolling Application | Types of Hot Rolling Mill | Hot Rolled Steel Tube | History

Cold Rolling - Physical metallurgy | Degree of cold work | Cold Rolling Stainless Steel | Manufacturing Process

Foil rolling | Rolling Mill | Steel Mill | Production methods | Recycling of Steel | Modern Steelmaking | Contemporary Steel

Tube Weight Calculation Working Pressure Calculator Conversion Converter Metals Weight Calculator
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Power Energy Converter Pressure Converter Temperature Converter Weight Conversion Converter

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Recycling of Steel
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Stainless Steel Tubing and Pipe:

Heat Exchanger Tubes
U Bend Stainless Steel Tubing
Duplex Stainless Steel Pipe
Boiler Tubes, Condenser Tubes
Stainless Steel Seamless Pipes Corrugated Seamless Stainless Steel Pipe Tube
Cold Drawn Bright Annealing Stainless Steel Tubes
Heat resistant Stainless Steel Tubes
Welded Stainless Steel Pipe
Corrosion Resistant Stainless Steel Tube
Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel Tubes
Nickel Alloy Seamless Tubes:

UNS N08020 2.4600 Nickel Alloy 20 Seamless Tubing
UNS N02200 2.4066 200 Nickel Alloy Seamless Tubing
UNS N04400 400 Nickel Alloy 2.4360 Nickel Alloy Tubing
UNS N08800 800 Nickel Alloy Seamless Tubes
UNS N08810 800H UNS N08810 Nickel Alloy Seamless Tubes
UNS N08811 800HT Nickel Alloy Seamless Tubes
UNS N08825 825 2.4858 Nickel Alloy Seamless Tubes
UNS N06600 600 2.4816 Nickel Alloy Seamless Tubes
UNS N06625 625 2.4856 Nickel Alloy Seamless Tubes
UNS N10276 C-276 2.4819 Nickel Alloy Seamless Tubing
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