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Carbon Steel 1040

1040, 1045 (HR,CF) - Used when greater strength and hardness is desired in the as rolled condition. Good for hammer forge processes. Uses include gears, shafts, axles, bolts sand studs. 1040 is a medium-carbon steel composed of 0.37 to 0.44 percent carbon, 0.6 to 0.9 percent manganese, a maximum of 0.04 percent phosphorus and a maximum of 0.05 sulphur. The remainder is iron. 1040 steel sometimes contains 0.1 to 0.35 percent silicon, according to Interlloy, an Australia-based alloy engineering steel, tool steel and specialty steel producer.

AISI 1040 equivalent to EN8/080M40. An unalloyed medium carbon steel. AISI 1040 is a medium strength steel with good tensile strength. Suitable for shafts, stressed pins, studs, keys etc. 1040 must be pre-heated to 300 to 500 degrees F before welding and reheated to between 1100 degrees F and 1200 degrees F after welding. Otherwise, the area near the weld may develop cracks or become brittle and cause the part to fail during use.

Tensile Strength
Ultimate tensile strength is the maximum load a material will support before it breaks, explains Instron, a materials testing laboratory. Ultimate tensile strength testing is a destruction test. The purpose is to find the point at which a material will fail when supporting a given load or sustaining a set force.

1040 steel will support 90,000 pounds of force per square inch before it fails, if it was hot-rolled. This strength drops to 85,500 psi when the steel has been normalized, or returned as closely as possible to the state it was in when it was produced. Tensile strength drops even further, to 72,250, when it has been annealed, or brought to its softest point while cold.

Normalizing and annealing are two examples of heat treatments. In heat treatment the temperature of the steel is changed in order to alter its molecular structure and change its reaction to various forces during forging and fabrication, according to metallurgist David Pye's heat treatment tutorial at Moldmaking Technology.

Ductility is the ability of a material to change shape under stress and force without breaking. It is also a measure of how far a material will stretch or spread under force before it cracks or flakes. The more ductile a metal is, the easier it is to deform and reform without applying heat. Automakers take advantage of the ductility of steel when they build in what are called "crumple zones." These are parts of a car that are intentionally designed to crumple under force, absorbing impact and preventing injury to the driver and passengers.

1040 steel can be deformed to just under 28 percent of its original dimensions with a 54.9 percent reduction in area. Reduction in area is the difference between the original piece prior to testing and the minimum area after the break divided by the area of the original piece.

Principal Design Features
1040 steel has a higher (0.40%) carbon content for greater strength than the lower carbon alloys. It is hardenable by heat treatment, quench and tempering to develop 150 to 250 ksi tensile strength.

Used for crankshafts, couplings and cold headed parts.

Machinability is good, rated at 60% that of the 1112 alloy used as a 100% machining rated steel.

Forming of 1040 steel in the annealed condition is readily accomplished.

1040 steel is weldable by all of the welding methods. However with its higher carbon content it is important to use both pre-heat at 300 to 500 F and post-heat at 1100 to 1200 F practice per an approved welding procedure.

Heat Treatment
This steel responds well to hardening by heat treatment at 1550 to 1650 F followed by water quench and then tempering to strength level desired.

Forge at 2300 F down to 1800 F.

Hot Working
Hot work from 900 to 200 F.

Cold Working
In the annealed state the 1040 alloy is readily cold worked by conventional methods.

Anneal at 1600 to 1800 F and slow cool in the furnace for a full anneal. A stress relief anneal may be done at 1100 F and a normalizing treatment may be done at 1650 F with slow cooling.

Tempering from the quenched condition may be done at 600 to 1300 F depending upon the strength desired.

Cold work will harden the alloy as will heat treatment and tempering.

AISI BS 970 1955 EN BS 970 1991 Werkstoff
1040 EN8 080M40 1.1186

Chemical Composition
Carbon 0.37 - 0.44
Iron Balance
Manganese 0.6 - 0.9
Phosphorus 0.04 max
Sulphur 0.05 max
Physical Data
Density (lb / cu. in.) 0.284
Specific Gravity 7.86
Specific Heat (Btu/lb/Deg F - [32-212 Deg F]) 0.107
Melting Point (Deg F) 2770
Poissons Ratio 0.3
Thermal Conductivity 360
Mean Coeff Thermal Expansion 6.7
Modulus of Elasticity Tension 30
Modulus of Elasticity Torsion 11
Mechanical Data
Form Round Bar
Condition Cold Drawn
Temper 68
Tensile Strength 85
Yield Strength 71
Elongation 17
Reduction of Area 42
Rockwell B93
Brinnell 170
Form Round Bar
Condition Hot Rolled
Temper 68
Tensile Strength 90
Yield Strength 56
Elongation 24
Reduction of Area 49
Rockwell B91
Brinnell 187

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